Medical Glossary


    abortifacient: inducing abortion

    abscesses: areas with necrotic liquid or pus accumulation

    aching: causing physical pain or distress

    acne: a disorder of the skin caused by inflammation of the skin glands and

    hair follicles

    acrodynia: a disease of infancy and early childhood marked by pain and

    swelling in, and pink coloration of, the fingers and toes and by listlessness,

    irritability, failure to thrive, profuse, perspiration, and sometimes scarlet coloration of the cheeks and tip of the nose.

    adenitis: inflammation of a gland

    AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    albuminuria: presence of serum albumin (protein) in the urine

    aldosteronism: hyperaldosteronism; an abnormality of electrolyte balance

    caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone

    alexipharmic: medicine that is intended to counter the effects of poison; an

    antidote to poison or infection

    alexiteric: protecting against infection, venom and poison

    alopecia: hair loss; baldness; absence of hair from skin areas where it is

    normally present

    amylase: an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars

    analgesic: an agent that reduces or eliminates pain

    anaphylaxis: hypersensitivity resulting from sensitisation following prior

    contact with the causative agent

    anasarca: generalised massive oedema

    angiogenic: an agent that promotes the growth of new blood vessels from

    pre-existing vessels

    anodyne: an agent that relieves pain.

    anorexia: lack or loss of appetite for food

    anthelmintic: an agent that destroys or expels parasitic intestinal worms

    anthrax: a serious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that

    forms spores

    antianaphylactic: an agent that prevents anaphylaxis (exaggerated reaction

    of an organism to which it has previously become sensitised)

    antiangiogenic: preventing the growth of new blood vessels

    antianxiety: allaying anxiety

    antiapoptotic: preventing genetically programmed cell death

    antiarrhythmic: preventing or alleviating irregular heart beats

    antiatherogenic: an agent that is capable of stopping the formation of fat

    deposits in blood vessels

    antibacterial: an agent that destroys or stops the growth of bacteria

    anticancer: reducing the frequency or rate of uncontrolled cell growth

    anticarcinogenic: describing an agent that will stop the formation of a


    anticholinergic: opposing or blocking the physiological action of a neurotransmitter,

    acetylcholine, which contract muscles and causing excitatory

    actions in the central nervous system

    anticoagulant: acting to prevent clotting of blood

    anticonvulsant: an agent that prevents or relieves seizures or epileptic


    antidepressant: an agent that stimulates the mood of a patient

    antidiabetic: an agent that controls high blood sugar

    antidiarrhoeal: substances used to prevent or treat diarrhoea

    antidotal: counteracting the effects of a poison

    antiemetic: an agent that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting

    antifertility: agent that is capable of reducing or adversely affecting


    antifilarial: an agent that counters nematode (roundworm) of the superfamily


    antifungal: an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi

    antigenotoxic: an agent that is capable of preventing damage to DNA

    molecules in genes, causing mutations, tumours, etc.

    antihyaluronidase: directed or effective against an enzyme (hyaluronidase)

    that breaks down hyaluronic acid, thus facilitating the spread of fluid through


    antihypertensive: an agent that controls high blood pressure

    anti-inflammatory: an agent that counteracts inflammation

    antileishmanial: directed or effective against leishmania, a parasitic protozoan

    that causes leishmaniasis

    antimalarial: an agent that prevents or treat the disease malaria caused by the

    Plasmodium parasite

    antimicrobial: destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms

    antimitotic: pertaining to certain substances capable of stopping cell division


    antimutagenic: directed or effective against substances that tends to increase

    the frequency or extent of mutation

    antineoplastic: inhibiting or preventing the growth and spread of neoplasms

    or cancerous cells

    antinociceptive: relieving pain

    antiosteoporotic: directed or effective against osteoporosis (characterised by

    decrease in bone mass with increased porosity and brittleness)

    antioxidant: inhibiting oxidation or an agent that does so

    antioxidative: protect body cells from the damaging effects of oxidation

    antiplasmodial: directed or effective against the malarial parasites

    (Plasmodium species)

    antiplatelet: inhibiting or stopping the formation of platelet aggregation

    antiproliferative: inhibiting cell growth

    260 A Guide to Medicinal Plants

    antiprotozoal: tending to destroy or inhibit the growth of protozoans

    antipruritic: preventing or relieving itching

    antipsychotic: any of the powerful tranquilisers used especially to treat

    psychosis and believed to act by blocking dopamine nervous receptors

    antipyretic: reducing fever or an agent that reduces fever

    antirheumatic: relieving or preventing rheumatism

    antischistosomal: directed or effective against infection caused by trematode

    worms (schistosomes) which are parasitic in the blood of humans and other


    antiseptic: any substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of


    antispasmodic: an agent that prevents or relieves muscle spasms

    antithyroidal: opposing thyroid function

    antitrichomonal: directed or effective against some protozoa (Trichomonas)

    antituberculosis: effective in the treatment of tuberculosis, a condition due

    to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    antitumour: inhibiting the growth of tumour cells

    antitussive: effective against cough; an agent that suppresses coughing

    antiulcer: prevent or cure ulcers or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract

    antiulcerogenic: directed or effective against development of ulcers

    antivenom: an agent used in the treatment of poisoning by animal toxins

    antiviral: acting, effective, or directed against viruses

    anuria: lack of urine production

    anxiolytic: relieving anxiety or an agent that relieves anxiety

    aperient: a mild laxative or gentle purgative

    aphrodisiac: an agent that stimulates sexual desire

    apnoea: a condition whereby breathing is stopped

    apoptotic: a term used to describe the state of programmed cell death

    appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix

    arrhythmia: abnormal heart beat

    arthritis: inflammation of joints

    ascites: effusion and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity

    asthma: a chronic, inflammatory lung disease characterised by recurrent

    breathing problems usually triggered by allergens

    astringent: having the property of causing contraction of soft organic tissues

    for the control of bleeding or secretions

    atherosclerosis: thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of


    athlete’s foot: fungal infections on the feet, often smelly

    atrophy: a wasting away; reduction in the size of a cell, tissue or organ

    bacillary: pertaining to the bacteria bacilli or to rod-like structures

    bechic: pertaining to cough

    beriberi: a disease due to vitamin B1 deficiency, marked by inflammation of

    nerves, heart problems and oedema

    bilious: relating to or containing bile

    blennorrhoea: any free discharge of mucus, especially from urethra or


    blisters: a vesicle

    boils: furuncle; tender, swollen areas of infection that usually form around

    hair follicles

    bronchial: pertaining to or affecting one or both windpipe

    bronchiolitis obliterans: a disease of the lungs where the bronchioles are

    inflamed and plugged with granulation tissue

    bronchitis: inflammation of mucous membrane of the windpipe (bronchus)

    cachexia: general ill health and malnutrition

    calculus: abnormal hard deposit, usually composed of mineral salts,

    occurring within the body

    cancer: a malignant tumour of growth that expands locally by invasion and

    systemically by metastasis

    carbuncles: swollen lumps or masses under the skin due to skin infections

    that often involve a group of hair follicles

    cardiac: pertaining to the heart

    cardioprotective: protecting the heart function

    cardiotonic: an agent that increases tonicity of the heart muscles

    carminative: an agent that relieves and removes gas from the digestive


    cataracts: conditions in which there is a loss or reduction of transparency

    of the lens of the eye causing progressive loss of clarity and detail of


    catarrh: a condition of the mucous membranes characterised by inflammation

    and mucous

    cathartic: an active purgative, producing bowel movements and evacuation

    of the bowels

    cephalgia: headache

    CELIAC DISEASE: A group of disorders characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption. Included is the disorder gluten induced enteropathy.

    chemopreventive: a chemical agent that can help prevent the development

    of cancer

    chilblains: inflammation or blister of the hands and feet caused by exposure

    to cold or moisture

    cholera: a form of intestinal infection that results in frequent watery stools,

    cramping abdominal pain and eventual collapse from dehydration

    cicatrizant: a medicine or application that promotes the healing of a sore or

    wound, or the formation of a cicatrix, which is a scar left by the formation of

    new connective tissue over a healing sore or wound

    coagulant: an agent promoting clotting of blood

    cold sore: a recurrent, small blister in and around the mouth caused by the

    herpes simplex virus

    colic: acute paraxysmal abdominal pain or pertaining to the colon

    coma: a state of profound unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be

    aroused, even by powerful stimuli

    condiment: something used to give a special flavour to food, as mustard,

    ketchup, salt, or spices

    congestive heart failure: the heart fails to pump efficiently, resulting in

    swelling, shortness of breath, weakness, etc.

    conjunctivitis: inflammation of the conjunctiva, generally associated with


    constipation: infrequent or difficult evacuation of faeces

    contraceptive: an agent capable of preventing the formation of a foetus

    contusion: injury to a part without a break in the skin; a bruise

    convulsions: spasms, epilepsy

    coolant: an agent that produces cooling

    coryza: profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose

    counterirritant: an agent producing counter-irritation, so that less pain at a

    particular site is experienced

    cramps: a painful spasmodic muscular contraction.

    Crohn’s disease: a chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive tract, particularly the small intestine and colon.

    cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder.

    cytotoxic: toxic to cells, preventing their reproduction or growth.

    dehydration: depletion of body fluids.

    delirium: mental state characterised by reduced ability to maintain attention

    to external stimuli and disorganised thinking

    demulcent: an agent that soothes and protects the part to which it is applied

    deobstruent: removes obstructions by ducts or pores of the body

    depressant: an agent that diminishes any functional activity

    depurative: purifying the blood or the humours.

    dermatitis: inflammation of the skin.

    dermatosis: any skin disease, especially one not characterised by inflammation

    diabetes: metabolic disorder resulting in high blood sugar and discharge of

    large amounts of sugar in the urine.

    diaphoretic: an agent that increases perspiration

    diarrhoea: abnormally frequent discharge of watery stools

    digitalis: the dried leaf of Digitalis purpurea; used as a tonic for the heart

    dipsia: thirst

    discutient: an agent that causes the dispersal or causes something, such as a

    tumour or any pathologic accumulation, to disappear

    diuretic: an agent that increases the production of urine

    dropsy: an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in cellular tissues or in a

    body cavity

    dysentery: infection of the gut caused by a bacterium called shigella,

    characterised by abdominal pain, diarrhoea with passage of mucus or blood

    dysmenorrhoea: difficult and painful menstruation

    dyspepsia: indigestion

    dyspnoea: difficult or laboured breathing

    dysrhythmias: an abnormality in an otherwise normal rhythmic pattern

    dysuria: painful or difficult urination

    ecchymoses: small haemorrhagic spots in the skin or mucous membrane,

    forming a non-elevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch

    eczema: an inflammatory condition of the skin characterised by redness,

    itching, scales, crusts or scabs alone or in combination

    elephantiasis: a disease caused by tumours in lymph node or filarial worms,

    causing excessive swelling in limbs and genitalis

    embrocations: alcohol-based treatments rubbed into the skin to relieve pain

    or which produce reddening of the skin

    embryotoxicity: any toxicity that affects an embryo

    emetic: an agent that induces vomiting

    emmenagogue: a substance that promotes or assists the flow of menstrual


    emollient: an agent that will soften, soothe and protect the part when applied


    enteritis: inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine

    epigastric: pertaining to the upper and middle region of the abdomen

    epilepsy: convulsions

    epistaxis: nosebleed

    eruptions: lesions on the skin that are usually red, raised, and easily visible

    erysipelas: is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection marked by deep red

    inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. This disease is also known

    as Saint Anthony’s fire

    erythema: redness of the skin due to congestion of the capillaries

    excrescences: abnormal outgrowth; a projection of morbid origin

    expectorant: an agent that promotes the discharge or expulsion of mucus

    from the respiratory tract.

    fad diets: diets suggesting you omit an entire category of food, eat a lot of any particular food or any alleged ‘miracle food’ should ring alarm bells. So should any diets that promise rapid weight loss or that don’t advise you to increase exercise – especially in the maintenance phase – as well as cut your food intake.

    febrifuge: an agent that reduces fever

    fertility: the capacity to conceive or induce conception

    fibroids: non-cancerous tumours made of muscle cells and tissues that grow

    in and around the wall of the uterus or womb

    fibrosis: an abnormal formation of fibrous tissue as a reparative or reactive

    process, as opposed to the formation of fibrous tissue that is a normal

    constituent of an organ or tissue

    filaricidal: an agent that kills filariae, nematodes that as adults are parasites

    in the blood or tissues of mammals and as larvae usually develop in biting


    fistulae: abnormal connections between an organ, vessel or intestine and

    another structure, usually due to injury, surgery or result from infection or


    flatulence: the presence of excessive gas in the intestinal tract, causing


    fluxes: excessive flow or discharge

    furuncle: infection of a hair follicle

    furunculosis: the persistent sequential occurrence of furuncles over a period

    of weeks or months or the simultaneous occurrence of a number of


    galactophoritis: inflammation of the milk ducts

    galactorrhoea: excessive or spontaneous milk flow; persistent secretion of

    milk irrespective of nursing

    gangrenous: characterised by the decay of body tissues, which become black

    and smelly

    gastritis: inflammation of the stomach

    gastroenteritis: inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the

    intestinal tract

    gastroprotective: protect the stomach

    gavage: forced feeding, especially through a tube passed into the stomach

    genotoxic: a toxic agent that damages DNA molecules in genes, causing

    mutations, tumours, etc.

    glottal: pertaining to the vocal apparatus of the larynx, consisting of the true

    vocal cords and the opening between them

    glucosidase: an enzyme of the hydrolase class that breaks down a glucoside

    Gluten: are proteins found in barley (prolamines), oats (avedins), rye(hordeins), and wheat(gliadins and glutenin). Gluten is best known for providing a pleasing stretchy texture to yeast bread; it also provides bulk and texture to foods. .

    gonorrhoea: infectious sexual disease due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    gout: a metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, marked by inflammation of the joints and great pain

    gravel: calculi occurring in small particles

    haemaglutination: agglutination of red blood cells

    haematemesis: the vomiting of blood

    haematometra: an accumulation of blood in the uterus

    haematuria: the finding of blood in the urine

    haemiplegia: paralysis of one side of the body

    haemolytic: lysis of red blood cells liberating haemoglobin in the plasma

    haemoptysis: coughing up of blood from the airways

    haemorrhage: profuse bleeding from the blood vessels

    haemorrhoids: piles

    haemostatic: stop bleeding

    heartburn: painful, burning feeling in the chest caused by stomach acid

    flowing back into the esophagus

    hepatitis: inflammation of the liver, usually due to viruses or toxins

    hepatoprotective: protecting the liver functions

    hepatotoxic: an agent that is toxic to liver cells

    herpes: inflammation of the skin or mucuous membrane with clusters of

    deep seated vesicles; a family of viruses that infect humans: herpes simplex

    causes lip and genital sores; herpes zoster causes shingles

    hiccups: sharp inspiratory sound with spasm of the glottis and diaphragm

    HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the virus that causes AIDS

    hydragogue: producing watery discharge, especially from the bowels or a

    cathartic that causes watery purgation

    hydrocele: swelling of and fluid on the testicles

    hydrothorax: a collection of serous fluid within the pleural cavity

    hypercholesterolaemic: high level of cholesterol in the blood

    hyperemesis: excessive vomiting

    hyperkalemia: high concentration of potassium in the blood

    hypertension: high blood pressure

    hypocholesterolaemic: an abnormal deficiency of cholesterol in the blood

    hypoglycaemic: producing a decrease in the blood sugar level

    hypolipidaemic: producing or resulting from a decrease in the level of lipids

    in the blood

    hypotension: low blood pressure

    hypotensive: marked by low blood pressure

    immunoglobulin: a protein of animal origin with known antibody activity

    immunomodulatory: having the ability to modify the immune response or

    function of the immune system

    immunostimulatory: the ability to stimulate the immune response

    immunosuppressive: being able to reduce the immune response

    impetigo: a highly contagious skin infection caused by bacteria, usually

    occurring around the nose and mouth; commonly occurring in children

    infertility: diminution or absence of ability to produce offspring

    inflammation: localised protective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury,

    infection, chemicals, electricity, heat, cold or microorganisms. Characterised

    by pain, redness, swelling and possible loss of function

    influenza: the flu; an infectious viral respiratory disease characterised by

    chills, fever, prostration, headache, muscle aches, sore throat, and a dry cough

    inotropic: affecting the force or energy of muscular contractions

    insanity: a legal term for mental illness, roughly equivalent to psychosis and

    implying inability to be responsible for one’s acts

    insomnia: inability to sleep

    Intestinal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract:  is where digestion and absorption of food occur. The primary organs include the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine.

    intoxication: poisoning

    jaundice: yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin and mucous

    membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues

    keratitis: inflammation of the cornea

    lactogogue: a substance which stimulates the flow of milk

    lameness: a state of being incapable of normal locomotion

    larvicidal: larvae killing (especially of parasites)

    laryngitis: inflammation of the lining of the larynx causing hoarseness

    laxative: having a tendency to loosen or relax, specifically in relieving

    constipation or an agent that relieves constipation

    leishmaniasis: infection with Leishmania, a parasitic protozoa

    leprosy: a chronic mycobacterial disease caused Mycobacterium leprae,

    characterised by skin lesions and necrosis

    lethargy: a condition of indifference or drowsiness

    leucoderma: partial or total loss of skin pigmentation, often occurring in

    patches. Also called vitiligo.

    leucodermic: an agent that can cause partial or total loss of skin pigmentation,

    often occurring in patches. Also called vitiligo

    leucorrhoea: a gynecologic disorder resulting in abnormal, thick, whitish,

    non-bloody discharge from the genital tract (uterus of vagina)

    leukemia: a progressive, maglinant disease of the blood-forming organs,

    marked by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their

    precursors in the blood and bone marrow

    lipolytic: an agent that breaks down fats

    lumbago: pain in the lumbar or loin region

    lymphadenopathy: enlargement of lymph nodes usually associated with

    inflammation or infection

    malaria: a febrile disease caused by infection with Plasmodial parasites,

    causing periodic attacks of chills, fever and sweating

    mange: a skin disease of domestic animals or pets due to mites

    mastitis: inflammation of the breast

    measles: acute highly infectious viral human disease caused by a virus,

    specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus, characterised by

    cough, fever, small red lesions each with whitish centre, formed in the mouth

    in early stages of the measles

    melancholic: a depressed and unhappy emotional state with abnormal

    inhibition of mental and bodily activity

    menorrhagia: excessive or prolonged menstruation

    metritis: inflammation of the uterus

    metrorrhagia: uterine bleeding; usually abnormal amount, occurring

    at completely irregular intervals, the period of flow sometimes being


    molluscicidal: effective for destroying molluscs

    mumps: infectious disease caused by a paramyxovirus, marked by fever and

    inflammation of parotid gland and swelling of the neck and throat

    mydriasis: pupil dilation

    myocardial: referring to the middle and the thickest layer of the heart wall,

    composed of cardiac muscles

    narcotic: a drug or agent which in moderate doses depresses the central

    nervous system, relieving pain and producing sleep but in large doses,

    produces unconsciousness, stupor, coma and possibly death

    nausea: an unpleasant sensation vaguely referred to the epigastrium and

    abdomen, with a tendency to vomit

    necrosis: the morphological changes indicative of cell death

    neonatal: pertaining to the first four weeks after birth

    nephritis: inflammation of the kidneys

    nephropathy: disease of the kidneys

    nephroprotective: an agent that protects or prevents damage to the kidney


    nephrotoxic: toxic to kidney cells

    neuralgia: pain occurring in the area served by a sensory nerve

    neurasthenia: nervous debility dependent upon impairment in the functions

    of the spinal cord

    neurodermatitis: a general term for a dermatosis presumed to be caused by

    itching due to emotional causes

    neuroleptics: effects on cognition and behavior of antipsychotic drugs,

    which produce a state of apathy, lack of initiative and limited range of


    neuroprotective: an agent that protects or prevents damage to the nerves

    neurotoxic: toxic to the nerves or nervous tissue

    neurotoxicity: the quality of exerting a destructive or poisonous effect on


    nits: the eggs or youngs of a parasitic insect, such as a lice

    nodal rhythm: a type of heart rhythm disorder; the cardiac rhythm that

    results when the heart is controlled by the atrioventricular node in which the

    impulse arises in the atrioventricular node, ascends to the atria, and descends

    to the ventricles more or less simultaneously

    nonteratogenic: referring to substance which will not cause malformations

    of an embryo or fetus

    oedema: the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular

    tissue spaces of the body

    oesophagitis: inflammation of the esophagus

    oliguria: diminished urine secretion in relation to fluid intake

    ophthalmia: severe inflammation of the eye

    osteoclasis: surgical fracture or refracture of bones

    osteodynia: ostealgia; pain in the bones

    otitis: inflammation of the ear

    oxytocic: an agent that promotes rapid labour by stimulating contractions of

    the uterus

    oxyuriasis: infection with Enterobius vermicularis (in humans) or with other


    pacemaker: a device that regulates the rhythm of the heart beat

    palsy: paralysis

    panacea: a remedy for all diseases

    parasiticidal: destructive to the parasites

    parturition: the act or process of giving birth to a child

    periodontitis: inflammation of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth

    pertussis: whooping cough

    pharyngitis: inflammation of the pharynx (throat)

    photoprotective: protecting against harmful effects of lights (UV-irradiation)

    phototoxicity: toxic effect triggered by exposure to light

    piles: haemorrhoids

    piscicidal: a substance that kills fish

    pleurisy: inflammation of the serous membrane investing the lungs and

    lining the walls of the thoracic cavity

    pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs due to a bacterial or viral infection,

    which causes fever, shortness of breath, and the coughing up of phlegm

    pollakiuria: abnormally frequent urination

    postpartum: occurring after childbirth, with reference to the mother

    prolapse: the falling down, or downward displacement, of a part or viscus

    prophylactic: an agent that prevents or protects against a disease or condition

    prurigo: any of several itchy skin eruptions in which the characteristic lesion

    is dome-shaped with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting or


    psoriasis: a chronic skin disease characterised by inflammation of the skin

    and formation of red patches

    puerperal: pertaining to a woman who has just given birth to a child or to the

    period or state of confinement after childbirth

    purgative: an agent that will cause evacuation of the intestinal contents

    pustule: a small, circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus

    radioprotective: serving to protect or aiding in protecting against the harmful

    effects of radiation

    rectocele: hernial protrusion of part of the rectum into the vagina

    refrigerant: an agent that produces coolness or reduces fever, allays thirst

    and gives a sensation of coolness to the system.

    resolvent: promoting resolution or the dissipation of a pathologic growth

    retching: strong involuntary effort to vomit

    Reye’s syndrome: a rare disorder in children and teenagers while recovering

    from childhood infections, such as chicken pox, flu, and other viral infections.

    Reye’s syndrome include nausea, severe vomiting, fever, lethargy,

    stupor, restlessness, and possibly delirium. Also caused by taking aspirin in

    children less than 16 years old

    rheumatism: general term for acute and chronic conditions characterised by

    inflammation (arthritis, tendonitis and bursitis), soreness and stiffness of

    muscles, and pain in joints

    rhinitis: inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane

    ringworm: any of a number of contagious skin diseases caused by certain

    parasitic fungi and characterised by the formation of ring-shaped eruptive


    rubefacient: an agent that produces a mild irritation, reddening of the skin,

    and local vasodilation increasing the blood supply to the area of application.

    saluretics: agents that promotes urinary excretion of sodium and chloride


    scabies: a contagious skin disease characterised by itching, inflammation,

    hair loss and secondary bacterial infection.

    schistosomiasis: infection with Schistosoma (blood flukes) which causes

    infection in man by penetrating the skin of people coming in contact with

    infected waters

    sclerosis: an induration or hardening, especially from inflammation and in

    diseases of the interstitial tissues

    scrofula: primary tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes; the inflamed

    structures being subject to a cheesy degeneration

    scurvy: disease characterised by spongy bleeding gums, loosening of teeth,

    and mucous membranes that is caused by lack of Vitamin C

    sedative: tending to calm, moderate, or transquilise nervousness or excitement

    or an agent that does so

    senility: the physical and mental deterioration associated with old age

    septicaemia: blood poisoning

    sialogogue: an agent that stimulates the flow of saliva

    sinus bradycardia: a normal but slow heart rhythm

    sinusitis: inflammation of a sinus

    smallpox: an acute infectious disease due to poxvirus, marked by sustained

    high fever and the appearance of skin eruptions and pustules, leaving small,

    depressed, depigmented scars

    sores: any lesion of the skin or mucous membranes

    spasm: a sudden, violent, involuntary muscular contraction

    spastic paraparesis: partial paralysis of the lower extremities due to muscular

    stiffness and spasms

    spermatogenesis: formation and development of sperms

    spermatorrhoea: involuntary escape of semen, without orgasm

    spermatotoxic: an agent that is toxic to spermatozoa

    splenitis: inflammation of the spleen

    splenosis: Implantation and subsequent growth of splenic tissue within the

    abdomen as a result of disruption of the spleen

    sprue: a chronic form of malabsorption syndrome

    stammering: a disorder of speech behavious marked by involuntary pauses

    in speech

    stasis: stoppage of flow, as of blood or other body fluid

    stimulant: an agent that excites the functional activity of an organ or system

    stomachic: an agent that stimulates the appetite and gastric secretion

    strabismus: squint

    sty: a circumscribed abscess caused by bacterial infection of the glands on

    the edge of the eyelid

    styptic: astrigent or arresting haemorrhage by means of an astringent quality

    sudorific: an agent that promotes sweating; diaphoretic

    sunstroke: a condition caused by excessive exposure to the sun, marked by

    high skin temperature, convulsions and coma.

    suppository: an easily fusible medicated mass to be introduced into a body


    syphilis: a contagious sexual disease caused by Treponema pallidum, characterised

    by local formation of ulcerous skin eruptions and systemic infection

    tachycardia: increased heart beat

    tachypnea: very rapid respiration

    taeniasis: infection with tapeworms

    taenifuge: an agent that expels tapeworms

    teratogenic: an agent that that causes physical defects in the developing


    tetanus: an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system;

    caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium

    thrush: candidiasis of the oral mucous membranes, fungal infection by

    Candida albicans with formation of whitish spots

    tonic: producing and restoring normal tone or characterised by continuous


    tonsillitis: inflammation of the tonsils

    trachoma: a contagious disease of the conjunctiva and cornea, producing

    photophobia, pain, and lacrimation, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

    tuberculosis: any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals due to

    species of Mycobacterium and marked by formation of tubercles and caseous

    necrosis in tissues of any organs, usually the lung

    tumour: an abnormal growth of tissue resulting from uncontrolled multiplication

    of cells and serving no physiological function

    tympanites: abnormal distention due to the presence of gas or air in the intestine

    or the peritoneal cavity

    typhoid: acute infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhii and

    char acterised by fever, severe physical and mental depression, diarrhoea and


    tyrosinase: an oxidising enzyme, occurring in plant and animal tissues,

    that catalyses the aerobic oxidation of tyrosine into melanin and other


    ulcerative colitis: a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon or colon and

    rectum, characterised by abdominal pain and diarrhoea, often mixed with

    blood and mucus

    urinary calcification: the deposit of calcium salts in the tissues of the urinary


    urinary lithiasis: the formation of urinary stones

    urodynia: pain in urination

    urticaria: an allergic disorder marked by raised patches of skin causing itchy

    swellings of the skin

    uteral: relating to uterus

    uterine haemorrhage: bleeding in the uterus

    uterotonic: increasing the tone of uterine muscle

    vaginismus: painful spasm of the vagina, hence often resulting in unsuccessful


    varices: enlarged tortuous vein, artery or lymphatic vessel. adj. varicose

    vasodilation: dilation of blood vessels

    vasorelaxant: an agent that relaxes the blood vessels

    venereal: due to or propagated by sexual intercourse

    vermifuge: an agent that causes the expulsion of intestinal worms

    verruca: a wart or one of the wart-like elevations on the endocardium in

    various types of endocarditis

    virility: the condition or quality of being virile

    vitiligo: a condition in which destruction of melanocytes in small or large circumscribed areas results in patches of depigmentation often having a hyperpigmented border, and often enlarging slowly.

    VO2max: maximum rate of oxygen utilisation of muscles during exercise.

    vulnerary: a remedy useful in healing wounds

    wandering pacemaker: an atrial arrhythmia that occurs when the natural

    cardiac pacemaker site shifts between the sino-atrial node, the atria and/or the

    atrioventricular node

    warts: abnormal growths on the skin due to viral infection caused by human


    whitlow: an infection of the fingers caused by herpes simplex virus

    whooping cough: a bacterial infection especially of the children caused by

    bacterium Bordetella pertussis marked by convulsive spasmodic

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